On this crucial point, the case of Germany’s decarbonization program — the Energiewende, or “energy turnaround” — is instructive. While it succeeded in expanding wind and solar to some 40% of electricity production, it notably failed to substantially reduce the country’s overall dependence on fossil fuels. The vaunted turnaround pushed the share of carbon in powering Germany from 84% to 78%, a fractional reduction.  Expanding the frame, the BP Statistical Review of World Energy informs us that wind and solar provided the equivalent of less than 5% of global primary energy in 2022. Fossil fuels powered the global growth economy for 300 days; wind and solar only 18 days.