Einstein's Thoughts on Male Aggression
by John Lawrence
From the book, Einstein, His Life and Universe, by Walter Isaacson:
In November, Einstein published a three-page essay titled "My Opinion of the [First World] War" that skirted the border of what was permissible, even for a great scientist, to say in Germany. He speculated that there existed "a biologically determined feature of the male character" that was one of the causes of wars. When the article was published by the Goethe League that month, a few passages were deleted for safety's sake, including an attack on patriotism as potentially containing ""the moral requisites for bestial hatred and mass murder."
The idea that war had a biological basis in male aggression was a topic Einstein also explored in a letter to his friend in Zurich, Heinrich Zangger. "What drives people to kill and maim each other so savagely?" Einstein asked. "I think it is the sexual character of the male that leads to such wild explosions."
The only method of containing such aggression, he argued, was a world organization that had the power to police member nations. It was a theme he would pick up again eighteen years later, in the final throes of his pure pacifism, when he engaged in a public exchange of letters with Sigmund Freud on both male psychology and the need for world government.
Also see The Mass Psychology of Fascism by Wilhelm Reich.